Name: 
 

Test 2 – Chapters 04, 05, 06, 07 and 08



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. (1-Point Each)
 

 1. 

The sidereal drive on a telescope mounting must turn the telescope eastward about the polar axis.
 

 2. 

Stars of spectra type K have strong Balmer lines.
 

 3. 

X-rays easily penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground from space.
 

 4. 

The absolute magnitude of a star is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 10 pc from Earth.
 

 5. 

Blue stars are hotter than red stars.
 

 6. 

The amount of energy a photon carries depends on its wavelength.
 

 7. 

Hydrogen lines are weak in the spectra of hot stars because many of the hydrogen atoms are ionized.
 

 8. 

Reflecting telescopes are no longer popular with astronomers because they are expensive and suffer from chromatic aberration.
 

 9. 

Light can behave as a particle or as a wave.
 

 10. 

Hydrogen alpha is the longest wavelength Balmer line.
 

 11. 

The Doppler effect is sensitive only to motion along the line of sight.
 

 12. 

The location of a star in the HR diagram indicates its temperature and intrinsic brightness.
 

 13. 

Sunspots are hotter than the photosphere.
 

 14. 

Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons.
 

 15. 

The Lyman series lines of hydrogen all lie in the infrared.
 

 16. 

The Copernican model of the solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.
 

 17. 

300 nm light has a lower frequency than 500 nm light.
 

 18. 

The chromosphere of the sun has a higher temperature than the photosphere.
 

 19. 

Most of the visible light from the sun originates in the photosphere.
 

 20. 

The Schmidt camera is used only for photography.
 

 21. 

The force due to gravity has the mathematical form: tf021-1.jpg
 

 22. 

To observe a spectroscopic binary, we must be able to see both stars individually.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (3-Points Each)
 

 23. 

Astronomers build telescopes on tops of mountains because
a.
there is less air to dim the light.
b.
the seeing is better.
c.
CCDs work better when there is less oxygen in the air.
d.
all of the above
e.
a and b
 

 24. 

Absolute zero is
a.
zero degrees Celsius.
b.
the temperature at which atoms have no remaining energy from which we can extract heat.
c.
the temperature at which water freezes.
d.
both a and c
e.
none of the above
 

 25. 

A plot of the continuous spectra of five different stars is shown in the figure below. Based on these spectra, which of the stars has the lowest temperature?

mc025-1.jpg
a.
Star D
b.
Star C
c.
Star E
d.
Star A
e.
Star B
 

 26. 

A recent sunspot maximum occurred in 2001, what is the year of the sunspot maximum that immediately follows the 2012 maximum if the solar cycle continues?
a.
2018 or 2019
b.
2023
c.
2034
d.
2029
e.
the last cycle started a Maunder minimum and the next maximum can not be predicted.
 

 27. 

The lowest energy level in an atom is
a.
responsible for Doppler shifts.
b.
the absolute zero temperature.
c.
the ground state.
d.
the ionization level.
e.
the energy level from which the Paschen Series of hydrogen originates.
 

 28. 

____________ is (are) produced by atomic transitions in the presence of a strong magnetic field.
a.
Granules
b.
Differential rotation
c.
The Zeeman effect
d.
The coronal hole
e.
Spicules
 

 29. 

Granulation is caused by
a.
sunspots.
b.
the solar wind flowing away from the corona.
c.
shock waves in the corona.
d.
rising gas below the photosphere.
e.
the heating in the chromosphere.
 

 30. 

Blue light
a.
has a greater energy than ultraviolet light.
b.
travels at a greater speed than red light.
c.
has a longer wavelength than red light.
d.
has a greater energy than red light.
e.
has a lower frequency than red light.
 

 31. 

The energy of a photon
a.
is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the light.
b.
depends only on the speed of the light.
c.
depends only on the mass of the photon.
d.
is proportional to the wavelength of the light.
e.
depends on both the mass and speed of the photon.
 

 32. 

The __________ of a telescope is a measure of its ability to show fine detail and depends on the diameter of the objective.
a.
resolving power
b.
spherical aberration
c.
focal length
d.
magnifying power
e.
light-gathering power
 

 33. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the smallest frequency?
a.
gamma-rays
b.
x-rays
c.
infrared radiation
d.
visible light
e.
radio
 

 34. 

The most common stars are
a.
white dwarfs.
b.
lower main sequence stars.
c.
giants.
d.
supergiants.
e.
upper main sequence stars.
 

 35. 

The two most abundant elements in the sun are
a.
carbon and nitrogen.
b.
nitrogen and oxygen.
c.
carbon and hydrogen.
d.
hydrogen and helium.
e.
sulfur and iron.
 

 36. 

Newton concluded that some force had to act on the moon because
a.
the moon moved at a constant velocity.
b.
a force is needed to keep the moon in motion.
c.
a force is needed to pull the moon away from straight-line motion.
d.
a force is needed to pull the moon outward.
e.
all of the above
 

 37. 

The neutral hydrogen atom consists of
a.
one proton, one neutron, and one electron.
b.
one proton and one electron.
c.
one proton and one neutron.
d.
an isotope and an ion.
e.
one proton.
 

 38. 

__________ has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
a.
Gamma-rays
b.
Ultraviolet light
c.
Infrared radiation
d.
X-rays
e.
a, b and d above
 

 39. 

Sunspots
a.
are cooler than their surroundings.
b.
are regions where material is rising from below the photosphere.
c.
produce spicules.
d.
are generally found near the poles of the sun during sunspot maximum.
e.
are the result of convection.
 

 40. 

You are standing near a railroad track and a train is moving toward you at 60 mph and blowing its horn. What will you notice as the train moves past you?
a.
The horn will get quieter as the train moves toward you.
b.
As the train approaches, the horn will sound lower in pitch than when the train is moving away.
c.
There will be no change in the pitch of the horn as it moves by.
d.
The horn will get louder as the train moves away from you.
e.
As the train approaches, the horn will sound higher in pitch than when the train is moving away.
 

 41. 

An atom can be excited
a.
if it emits a photon.
b.
if it collides with another atom or electron.
c.
if it absorbs a photon.
d.
a and b above
e.
b and c above
 

 42. 

Galileo's telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moon
a.
did not orbit Earth.
b.
were the same kind of object.
c.
orbited each other.
d.
were inhabited.
e.
were not perfect spheres.
 

 43. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the highest frequency?
a.
x-rays
b.
visible light
c.
radio
d.
infrared radiation
e.
gamma-rays
 

 44. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the greatest energy?
a.
x-rays
b.
gamma-rays
c.
infrared radiation
d.
visible light
e.
radio
 

 45. 

__________ is absorbed by water in Earth's atmosphere and requires that telescopes for observing at these wavelengths be placed on mountain tops or in space.
a.
Infrared radiation
b.
Radio wave radiation
c.
X-ray radiation
d.
Ultraviolet radiation
e.
Visible light
 

 46. 

An achromatic lens
a.
contains two mirrors and focuses the light back through the primary mirror.
b.
is used to correct spherical aberration in reflecting telescopes.
c.
is used to correct chromatic aberration in refracting telescopes.
d.
is used to correct spherical aberration in refracting telescopes.
e.
is used to correct chromatic aberration in reflecting telescopes.
 

 47. 

Sunspots are known to be magnetic phenomena because
a.
collisional broadening is observed in spectral lines.
b.
the Zeeman effect is observed in sunspots.
c.
observations during eclipses reveal a very extensive photosphere.
d.
Doppler shifts in spectral lines are observed.
e.
infrared observations indicate that the sunspots are cooler than their surroundings.
 

 48. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an continuous spectrum?

mc048-1.jpg
a.
1
b.
3
c.
2 and 3
d.
2
e.
none of them
 

 49. 

The chromosphere of the sun
a.
is the visible surface of the sun.
b.
produces an absorption spectrum.
c.
is hotter than the photosphere.
d.
appears yellow-white in color during total solar eclipse.
e.
all of the above.
 

 50. 

A telescope that suffers from chromatic aberration and has a low light gathering power is most likely
a.
a large diameter reflecting telescope.
b.
a large diameter refracting telescope.
c.
an infrared telescope.
d.
a small diameter refracting telescope.
e.
a small diameter reflecting telescope.
 

 51. 

Ptolemy's model of the universe
a.
included elliptical orbits.
b.
was heliocentric.
c.
contained epicycles.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 52. 

Far infrared astronomy must be done from high-flying aircraft because
a.
far infrared sources are very bright.
b.
far infrared radiation is absorbed low in Earth's atmosphere.
c.
far infrared photons are quite energetic.
d.
far infrared telescopes only need to get above the ozone layer.
e.
far infrared telescopes are not very heavy.
 

 53. 

Why don't we see hydrogen Balmer lines in the spectra of stars with temperatures of 45,000 K?
a.
The stars are hot enough that most of the hydrogen is ionized and the atoms can not absorb energy.
b.
Stars of this temperature are too cool to produce an absorption spectrum.
c.
There is no hydrogen in stars this hot.
d.
These stars are so cool that nearly all of the electrons in the hydrogen atom are in the ground state.
e.
Stars of this temperature are too hot to produce an absorption spectrum.
 

 54. 

Which of the following can be determined by using the Doppler effect?

I.
The speed at which a star is moving away from an observer.
II.
The transverse velocity of a star.
III.
The radial velocity of a star.
IV.
The speed at which a car is traveling toward an observer.
a.
I & III
b.
II & III
c.
I, III, & IV
d.
II & IV
e.
I & IV
 

 55. 

Gravity obeys an inverse square relation. This statement implies that the force due to gravity between two masses
a.
will cause the two masses to move away from each other.
b.
will cause the two masses to move in a straight line.
c.
will decrease as the square of the distance between the two masses increases.
d.
will cause the two masses to orbit each other.
e.
will increase as the distance between the two masses increases.
 

 56. 

__________ has (have) wavelengths that are shorter than visible light.

I.
Gamma-rays
II.
Ultraviolet light
III.
Infrared radiation
IV.
X-rays
a.
I, II, & IV
b.
I & II
c.
II & III
d.
I & IV
e.
II, III, & IV
 

 57. 

The force due to gravity between two objects depends on

I.
the mass of each object.
II.
the distance each object is from Earth.
III.
the distance between the two objects.
IV.
the speed of light.
a.
I & II
b.
I, II, III, & IV
c.
II & IV
d.
I, II, & III
e.
I & III
 

 58. 

A(n) __________ contains two or more atoms that are bound together by sharing electrons with each other.
a.
electron cloud
b.
proton
c.
molecule
d.
nucleus
e.
ion
 

 59. 

When we say that gravitation is universal we mean that
a.
it is a property of all matter.
b.
it is important in all aspects of science.
c.
it could be deduced from the appearance of the universe.
d.
the force of gravity from one object extends to infinity.
e.
for every force there is an equal and opposite force.
 

 60. 

Ultraviolet radiation from a star
a.
will not penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground.
b.
has a wavelength that is longer than the visible light emitted by the star.
c.
has a wavelength that is shorter than the x-rays emitted by the star.
d.
a and b
e.
b and c
 

 61. 

The centers of granules
a.
are hot material rising to the photosphere from below.
b.
are cool material falling from the photosphere to the regions below.
c.
show strong Zeeman effects.
d.
are fainter and hotter than their surroundings.
e.
are brighter and cooler than their surroundings.
 

 62. 

A(n) __________ is a circle whose center is located on the circumference of another circle.
a.
deferent
b.
epicycle
c.
equant
d.
retrograde loop
e.
ellipse
 

 63. 

Why don't we see hydrogen Balmer lines in the spectra of stars with temperatures of 3,200 K?
a.
There is no hydrogen in stars this cool.
b.
Stars of this temperature are too cool to produce an absorption spectrum.
c.
The stars are hot enough that most of the hydrogen is ionized and the atoms can not absorb energy.
d.
Stars of this temperature are too hot to produce an absorption spectrum.
e.
These stars are so cool that nearly all of the electrons in the hydrogen atom are in the ground state.
 

 64. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an absorption spectrum?

mc064-1.jpg**
a.
2 and 3
b.
3
c.
2
d.
1
e.
none of them
 

Fill In the Blank
Complete each of the folloiwng statements. (5-Points Each)
 

 65. 

Complete the following diagram clearly showing the following:

      The star groupings.
      The percentage of stars on each of these groupings.
      The name of each of these groupings.

co065-1.jpg
 

 

 66. 

Fill in the following table:
Spectral Class
Temperature (K)
Balmer Lines
Other Elements

   

   

   

   

   

   

   
 

 

 67. 

Name the layers of our sun starting with the first visible layer and work outward.

      a.___________________________________________


      b.___________________________________________


      c.___________________________________________
 

 

 68. 

Refracting telescopes suffer from __________ aberration.
 

 

 69. 

Uranus' orbital period is 84 years, how far is Uranus from the sun? _____________
 

 

 70. 

The process of removing an electron from a stable nucleus is known as __________.
 

 

 71. 

The __________ Tables were based on a heliocentric model of the universe and used elliptical orbits for the planets.
 

 

Short Answer
Provide a short answer for the following question. (5-Points or More Each)
 

 72. 

What are Kepler's three laws?

1.__________________________________________________________________


2. __________________________________________________________________


3. __________________________________________________________________
 

 73. 

What are Newton's three laws of motion.

1.__________________________________________________________________


2. __________________________________________________________________


3. __________________________________________________________________
 

 74. 

What advantages does a large diameter astronomical telescope have over a telescope of a smaller diameter?
 

 75. 

If Copernicus overthrew the geocentric universe, what did Kepler overthrow?
 

 76. 

Why would parallaxes be easier to observe if Earth were farther from the sun?
 

 77. 

List the advantages the Hubble Space Telescope has over ground-based telescopes.
 

 78. 

How can we find the distance to a star that is too distant to have a measurable parallax?
 

 79. 

Describe the differences between the Ptolemaic, Tychonian and Copernican models of the universe.

Ptolemy_______________________________________________________________


Tycho________________________________________________________________


Copernicus____________________________________________________________
 

 80. 

What are the current methods used to determine distance?
 

 81. 

What evidence do we have that the sunspots are magnetic?
 



 
Check Your Work     Start Over