Name: 
 

Test 2 – Chapters 04, 05, 06, 07 and 08



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. (1-Point Each)
 

 1. 

300 nm light has a lower frequency than 500 nm light.
 

 2. 

Blue stars are hotter than red stars.
 

 3. 

To observe a spectroscopic binary, we must be able to see both stars individually.
 

 4. 

The force due to gravity has the mathematical form: tf004-1.jpg
 

 5. 

Stars of spectra type K have strong Balmer lines.
 

 6. 

The Copernican model of the solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.
 

 7. 

Light can behave as a particle or as a wave.
 

 8. 

The Lyman series lines of hydrogen all lie in the infrared.
 

 9. 

The amount of energy a photon carries depends on its wavelength.
 

 10. 

The absolute magnitude of a star is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 10 pc from Earth.
 

 11. 

Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons.
 

 12. 

Most of the visible light from the sun originates in the photosphere.
 

 13. 

The sidereal drive on a telescope mounting must turn the telescope eastward about the polar axis.
 

 14. 

The location of a star in the HR diagram indicates its temperature and intrinsic brightness.
 

 15. 

Hydrogen lines are weak in the spectra of hot stars because many of the hydrogen atoms are ionized.
 

 16. 

Reflecting telescopes are no longer popular with astronomers because they are expensive and suffer from chromatic aberration.
 

 17. 

The Doppler effect is sensitive only to motion along the line of sight.
 

 18. 

X-rays easily penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground from space.
 

 19. 

Hydrogen alpha is the longest wavelength Balmer line.
 

 20. 

The Schmidt camera is used only for photography.
 

 21. 

The chromosphere of the sun has a higher temperature than the photosphere.
 

 22. 

Sunspots are hotter than the photosphere.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (3-Points Each)
 

 23. 

Sunspots
a.
are cooler than their surroundings.
b.
are regions where material is rising from below the photosphere.
c.
are the result of convection.
d.
produce spicules.
e.
are generally found near the poles of the sun during sunspot maximum.
 

 24. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the highest frequency?
a.
x-rays
b.
visible light
c.
radio
d.
gamma-rays
e.
infrared radiation
 

 25. 

The most common stars are
a.
supergiants.
b.
giants.
c.
upper main sequence stars.
d.
white dwarfs.
e.
lower main sequence stars.
 

 26. 

The lowest energy level in an atom is
a.
the absolute zero temperature.
b.
the ground state.
c.
the ionization level.
d.
responsible for Doppler shifts.
e.
the energy level from which the Paschen Series of hydrogen originates.
 

 27. 

An atom can be excited
a.
if it emits a photon.
b.
if it collides with another atom or electron.
c.
if it absorbs a photon.
d.
a and b above
e.
b and c above
 

 28. 

The force due to gravity between two objects depends on

I.
the mass of each object.
II.
the distance each object is from Earth.
III.
the distance between the two objects.
IV.
the speed of light.
a.
I & III
b.
I & II
c.
I, II, & III
d.
II & IV
e.
I, II, III, & IV
 

 29. 

Galileo's telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moon
a.
did not orbit Earth.
b.
orbited each other.
c.
were not perfect spheres.
d.
were the same kind of object.
e.
were inhabited.
 

 30. 

The energy of a photon
a.
is proportional to the wavelength of the light.
b.
is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the light.
c.
depends only on the speed of the light.
d.
depends only on the mass of the photon.
e.
depends on both the mass and speed of the photon.
 

 31. 

The centers of granules
a.
are hot material rising to the photosphere from below.
b.
are cool material falling from the photosphere to the regions below.
c.
are fainter and hotter than their surroundings.
d.
are brighter and cooler than their surroundings.
e.
show strong Zeeman effects.
 

 32. 

Granulation is caused by
a.
sunspots.
b.
rising gas below the photosphere.
c.
shock waves in the corona.
d.
the solar wind flowing away from the corona.
e.
the heating in the chromosphere.
 

 33. 

Gravity obeys an inverse square relation. This statement implies that the force due to gravity between two masses
a.
will cause the two masses to orbit each other.
b.
will cause the two masses to move in a straight line.
c.
will cause the two masses to move away from each other.
d.
will increase as the distance between the two masses increases.
e.
will decrease as the square of the distance between the two masses increases.
 

 34. 

__________ has (have) wavelengths that are shorter than visible light.

I.
Gamma-rays
II.
Ultraviolet light
III.
Infrared radiation
IV.
X-rays
a.
I & II
b.
I & IV
c.
II & III
d.
II, III, & IV
e.
I, II, & IV
 

 35. 

Ptolemy's model of the universe
a.
contained epicycles.
b.
included elliptical orbits.
c.
was heliocentric.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 36. 

When we say that gravitation is universal we mean that
a.
for every force there is an equal and opposite force.
b.
the force of gravity from one object extends to infinity.
c.
it is important in all aspects of science.
d.
it could be deduced from the appearance of the universe.
e.
it is a property of all matter.
 

 37. 

Far infrared astronomy must be done from high-flying aircraft because
a.
far infrared telescopes only need to get above the ozone layer.
b.
far infrared radiation is absorbed low in Earth's atmosphere.
c.
far infrared photons are quite energetic.
d.
far infrared telescopes are not very heavy.
e.
far infrared sources are very bright.
 

 38. 

Why don't we see hydrogen Balmer lines in the spectra of stars with temperatures of 3,200 K?
a.
There is no hydrogen in stars this cool.
b.
The stars are hot enough that most of the hydrogen is ionized and the atoms can not absorb energy.
c.
These stars are so cool that nearly all of the electrons in the hydrogen atom are in the ground state.
d.
Stars of this temperature are too cool to produce an absorption spectrum.
e.
Stars of this temperature are too hot to produce an absorption spectrum.
 

 39. 

Ultraviolet radiation from a star
a.
will not penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground.
b.
has a wavelength that is longer than the visible light emitted by the star.
c.
has a wavelength that is shorter than the x-rays emitted by the star.
d.
a and b
e.
b and c
 

 40. 

Which of the following can be determined by using the Doppler effect?

I.
The speed at which a star is moving away from an observer.
II.
The transverse velocity of a star.
III.
The radial velocity of a star.
IV.
The speed at which a car is traveling toward an observer.
a.
I & IV
b.
II & III
c.
II & IV
d.
I & III
e.
I, III, & IV
 

 41. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the greatest energy?
a.
x-rays
b.
visible light
c.
radio
d.
gamma-rays
e.
infrared radiation
 

 42. 

Blue light
a.
has a greater energy than red light.
b.
has a greater energy than ultraviolet light.
c.
has a lower frequency than red light.
d.
has a longer wavelength than red light.
e.
travels at a greater speed than red light.
 

 43. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the smallest frequency?
a.
x-rays
b.
visible light
c.
radio
d.
gamma-rays
e.
infrared radiation
 

 44. 

Astronomers build telescopes on tops of mountains because
a.
there is less air to dim the light.
b.
the seeing is better.
c.
CCDs work better when there is less oxygen in the air.
d.
all of the above
e.
a and b
 

 45. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an absorption spectrum?

mc045-1.jpg**
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
2 and 3
e.
none of them
 

 46. 

The two most abundant elements in the sun are
a.
nitrogen and oxygen.
b.
hydrogen and helium.
c.
sulfur and iron.
d.
carbon and hydrogen.
e.
carbon and nitrogen.
 

 47. 

An achromatic lens
a.
is used to correct spherical aberration in reflecting telescopes.
b.
is used to correct chromatic aberration in refracting telescopes.
c.
is used to correct spherical aberration in refracting telescopes.
d.
is used to correct chromatic aberration in reflecting telescopes.
e.
contains two mirrors and focuses the light back through the primary mirror.
 

 48. 

____________ is (are) produced by atomic transitions in the presence of a strong magnetic field.
a.
Differential rotation
b.
Granules
c.
The Zeeman effect
d.
Spicules
e.
The coronal hole
 

 49. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an continuous spectrum?

mc049-1.jpg
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
2 and 3
e.
none of them
 

 50. 

You are standing near a railroad track and a train is moving toward you at 60 mph and blowing its horn. What will you notice as the train moves past you?
a.
As the train approaches, the horn will sound lower in pitch than when the train is moving away.
b.
As the train approaches, the horn will sound higher in pitch than when the train is moving away.
c.
There will be no change in the pitch of the horn as it moves by.
d.
The horn will get louder as the train moves away from you.
e.
The horn will get quieter as the train moves toward you.
 

 51. 

Why don't we see hydrogen Balmer lines in the spectra of stars with temperatures of 45,000 K?
a.
There is no hydrogen in stars this hot.
b.
The stars are hot enough that most of the hydrogen is ionized and the atoms can not absorb energy.
c.
These stars are so cool that nearly all of the electrons in the hydrogen atom are in the ground state.
d.
Stars of this temperature are too cool to produce an absorption spectrum.
e.
Stars of this temperature are too hot to produce an absorption spectrum.
 

 52. 

Sunspots are known to be magnetic phenomena because
a.
Doppler shifts in spectral lines are observed.
b.
the Zeeman effect is observed in sunspots.
c.
collisional broadening is observed in spectral lines.
d.
infrared observations indicate that the sunspots are cooler than their surroundings.
e.
observations during eclipses reveal a very extensive photosphere.
 

 53. 

The neutral hydrogen atom consists of
a.
one proton and one neutron.
b.
one proton.
c.
one proton, one neutron, and one electron.
d.
one proton and one electron.
e.
an isotope and an ion.
 

 54. 

A plot of the continuous spectra of five different stars is shown in the figure below. Based on these spectra, which of the stars has the lowest temperature?

mc054-1.jpg
a.
Star A
b.
Star B
c.
Star C
d.
Star D
e.
Star E
 

 55. 

Absolute zero is
a.
zero degrees Celsius.
b.
the temperature at which atoms have no remaining energy from which we can extract heat.
c.
the temperature at which water freezes.
d.
both a and c
e.
none of the above
 

 56. 

A telescope that suffers from chromatic aberration and has a low light gathering power is most likely
a.
a small diameter reflecting telescope.
b.
a small diameter refracting telescope.
c.
a large diameter refracting telescope.
d.
a large diameter reflecting telescope.
e.
an infrared telescope.
 

 57. 

A recent sunspot maximum occurred in 2001, what is the year of the sunspot maximum that immediately follows the 2012 maximum if the solar cycle continues?
a.
2018 or 2019
b.
2023
c.
2029
d.
2034
e.
the last cycle started a Maunder minimum and the next maximum can not be predicted.
 

 58. 

Newton concluded that some force had to act on the moon because
a.
a force is needed to pull the moon outward.
b.
a force is needed to pull the moon away from straight-line motion.
c.
the moon moved at a constant velocity.
d.
a force is needed to keep the moon in motion.
e.
all of the above
 

 59. 

A(n) __________ is a circle whose center is located on the circumference of another circle.
a.
retrograde loop
b.
equant
c.
deferent
d.
epicycle
e.
ellipse
 

 60. 

__________ is absorbed by water in Earth's atmosphere and requires that telescopes for observing at these wavelengths be placed on mountain tops or in space.
a.
Infrared radiation
b.
Ultraviolet radiation
c.
Radio wave radiation
d.
X-ray radiation
e.
Visible light
 

 61. 

__________ has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
a.
Gamma-rays
b.
Ultraviolet light
c.
Infrared radiation
d.
X-rays
e.
a, b and d above
 

 62. 

The __________ of a telescope is a measure of its ability to show fine detail and depends on the diameter of the objective.
a.
light-gathering power
b.
focal length
c.
magnifying power
d.
resolving power
e.
spherical aberration
 

 63. 

A(n) __________ contains two or more atoms that are bound together by sharing electrons with each other.
a.
nucleus
b.
ion
c.
proton
d.
electron cloud
e.
molecule
 

 64. 

The chromosphere of the sun
a.
is hotter than the photosphere.
b.
appears yellow-white in color during total solar eclipse.
c.
is the visible surface of the sun.
d.
produces an absorption spectrum.
e.
all of the above.
 

Fill In the Blank
Complete each of the folloiwng statements. (5-Points Each)
 

 65. 

The process of removing an electron from a stable nucleus is known as __________.
 

 

 66. 

Uranus' orbital period is 84 years, how far is Uranus from the sun? _____________
 

 

 67. 

The __________ Tables were based on a heliocentric model of the universe and used elliptical orbits for the planets.
 

 

 68. 

Name the layers of our sun starting with the first visible layer and work outward.

      a.___________________________________________


      b.___________________________________________


      c.___________________________________________
 

 

 69. 

Complete the following diagram clearly showing the following:

      The star groupings.
      The percentage of stars on each of these groupings.
      The name of each of these groupings.

co069-1.jpg
 

 

 70. 

Fill in the following table:
Spectral Class
Temperature (K)
Balmer Lines
Other Elements

   

   

   

   

   

   

   
 

 

 71. 

Refracting telescopes suffer from __________ aberration.
 

 

Short Answer
Provide a short answer for the following question. (5-Points or More Each)
 

 72. 

How can we find the distance to a star that is too distant to have a measurable parallax?
 

 73. 

What are Newton's three laws of motion.

1.__________________________________________________________________


2. __________________________________________________________________


3. __________________________________________________________________
 

 74. 

What advantages does a large diameter astronomical telescope have over a telescope of a smaller diameter?
 

 75. 

If Copernicus overthrew the geocentric universe, what did Kepler overthrow?
 

 76. 

What evidence do we have that the sunspots are magnetic?
 

 77. 

Why would parallaxes be easier to observe if Earth were farther from the sun?
 

 78. 

What are Kepler's three laws?

1.__________________________________________________________________


2. __________________________________________________________________


3. __________________________________________________________________
 

 79. 

Describe the differences between the Ptolemaic, Tychonian and Copernican models of the universe.

Ptolemy_______________________________________________________________


Tycho________________________________________________________________


Copernicus____________________________________________________________
 

 80. 

What are the current methods used to determine distance?
 

 81. 

List the advantages the Hubble Space Telescope has over ground-based telescopes.
 



 
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